Future of Europe blog

Exploring potentials and pitfalls of differentiation in Europe 

More articles from the blog

Brexit: The cold waters between Canada and Norway

Jean-Claude Piris |

The UK’s push for the frictionless market of the Norway option, while accepting only the obligations of the Canada option, was not viable. It was a delusion, either due to ignorance or self-deception. The UK never had the same vision of the EU as the other Member States. A main reason for the UK’s accession […]

Differentiated integration meets a divided public

Jana Gómez Díaz, Julian Schuessler, Dirk Leuffen |

Differentiated integration is a political reality in the European Union. However, public opinion remains divided, both across countries and among individual citizens. This fact highlights important challenges for the workings of the Conference on the Future of Europe. During the recent tense and aggressive debate on the EU budget and the COVID-19 relief fund, Prime […]

Differences between national institutions condition who interacts with whom on European Administrative Networks

Dorte Sindbjerg Martinsen, Reini Schrama, Ellen Mastenbroek |

The EU relies on networks of representatives from national institutions to assist in the implementation and enforcement its policies. Two recent studies show that there are multiple clusters on the welfare and healthcare networks, with implications for the effectiveness of this governance tool. Based on these studies, here the authors Dorte Sindbjerg Martinsen, Reini Schrama, […]

The cases of Kosovo and Ukraine suggest a fragmented EU foreign policy

Maria Giulia Amadio Viceré |

In the last decade, the EU’s foreign policy practices have grown increasingly complex. For instance, despite the centralisation envisaged by the Lisbon Treaty, informal groups of member states shaped the Union’s policy on Kosovo and Ukraine. Ten years after its ratification, some believe that the Lisbon Treaty failed to strengthen the EU activities in international […]

Without good governance, the EU borrowing mechanism to boost the recovery could fail

Guntram Wolff |

The European Union recovery fund could greatly increase the stability of the bloc and its monetary union. But the fund needs clearer objectives, sustainable growth criteria and close monitoring so that spending achieves its goals and is free of corruption. In finalising the fund, the EU should take the time to design a strong governance […]

To strengthen democratic legitimacy in a differentiated EU, turn to transnational lists

Max Heermann |

The EU’s legitimacy depends on institutional procedures that respect democratic principles – both in cases of uniform and differentiated integration, Max Heermann argues.   Crises often reveal the need for closer European cooperation. At the same time, they highlight divisions among the European Union’s member states about the right path forward. The COVID-19 pandemic is […]

Bringing Rhetorical Action Back In. Brexit and the Corona crisis show the strength of norm-based arguments

Dirk Leuffen, Pascal Mounchid |

EU researchers have been rather silent about rhetorical action in recent years. The current Brexit and Corona reconstruction negotiations show why they shouldn’t be, Dirk Leuffen and Pascal Mounchid argue. In the early 2000s, rhetorical action – the “strategic use of norm-based arguments” – was a powerfully used concept in academic debates on European integration. […]

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